A similar change occurred nearly years ago with the advent of the printing press, though less rapidly. With Johann Gutenberg's printing press, which was modeled on Chinese presses and popularized through clever marketing, the technology became a tool for mass-production.
However, it took the better part of another century for the technology to become a "mass medium," meaning that the majority of people accepted the content it produced as possessing a certain truth value.
In other words, a long process of validation had to occur before it became socially accepted to reference printed content as a source of knowledge. Only at the conclusion of this process could the printing press itself become a motor of social transformation.
Prior to this acceptance of the printed word, writing itself had little value in comparison to the spoken word. Even Plato, in the voice of Socrates, had initially voiced skepticism about the written word, arguing that it would cause the mind and memory to deteriorate.
However, when writing itself was accepted into societies, it changed the social structure insofar that it enlarged the social relations both spatially and temporally. Spatially, insofar as it became possible to transport lengthy and complicated messages over longer distances, thereby, for example, increasing the territory over which a monarch could effectively rule. Temporally, insofar as it became possible for a writer to transcend the present moment by leaving a message for a future reader, as well as making the message accessible to an unintended reader.
But up until the times when the printed word became widely accessible and socially acceptable, reading and writing were highly specialized practices that many cultures and societies permitted only their ruling elites and clergy to engage in. With the ready availability of written material through the printing press, though, the pressure to attain literacy grew among a wider audience while the output of information gradually increased. In her seminal, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Elisabeth Eisenstein described in meticulous detail the effects of the shift from scripture to printing, including the influence this technology had on the rise of the major movements that shaped early modernity Actually, only with the printing press and the mass production of literature did concepts like the author and authorship, the authenticity of writing, and the reader, readership and audience — concepts that we now take for granted — arise.
These concepts as we know them today did not really exist in the world before the printing press. With its invention, though, the processes of standardization began to restructure the intellectual world. In a way, before the printing press, there existed several "Aristotles" or "Platos," and several Holy Scriptures.
Depending on where one resided in the world, the scriptures could have significant variations, and the Aristotle one encountered in Paris was not the same Aristotle encountered in Rome. With the advent of the printing press, however, a technology arose that could create the one, canonical "Holy Bible" or "Aristotle" that we know today. With these developments concerning authorship and audience, the idea of the "public" emerged, which was a necessary condition for the development and proliferation of the ideas of a "nation" and a "modern democracy.
The bourgeois, or burgher class, during this period had ample leisure time to discuss the formation of the "nation" and the ideas of "republic" and "democracy. We delude our selves, when we say that, we are not Media Content The First Amendment guarantees the freedom of speech, which opens a very large can of worms within the American political schema and it's interpretation by its citizens and courts.
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The Media of Mass Communication Research Papers The Media of Mass Communication research papers discuss how mass media has changed the way we communicate today. The Media of Mass .
Mass Media research papers look into the technologies that are used to communicate to a large audience. Mass media are any number of technologies that are used to communicate to a large .
Aug 13, · Mass Media Research Paper The mass media is now a global phenomena and has revolutionised the way individuals communicate with each other and receive information. In this essay I will examine the three forms of mass media - newspaper, radio and television - . - Mass Media is a major part of the everyday lives of American citizens. Mass media provides the public the means for obtaining information, and knowledge about various aspects of life such as the .
This sample Mass Media Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Academic papers on (Mass) Media & Broadcasting Christianity And Mass Media This 5 page paper explores the effect of Christianity on mass media and attempts to forecast the influence between these two segments of society in the next 50 years.