Everything becomes more difficult as frequencies climb into the gigahertz range: Of course, we will always have at least a few components that are compatible with the received carrier frequency: But the IF approach allows us to perform only the most necessary processing in the RF band.
Filtering is a common requirement in all types of RF systems, but some situations place especially high demands on filter circuits. Consider the following scenario: A receiver must extract the information from a narrowband RF signal that is accompanied by strong interfering signals with frequency close to the edges of the spectrum of the desired signal.
The issue is the Q factor, which corresponds to how selective the band-pass filter is. A combination of high-frequency operation and narrow bandwidth requires a very high Q, and eventually we reach a point at which it is simply not feasible to design a band-pass filter with sufficient selectivity. The Q factor of a band-pass filter is defined as follows:. Thus, we can see that a straightforward way to decrease the required Q is to lower the center frequency, and IF techniques allow us to do exactly that.
We know from the previous chapter that quadrature demodulation is an important technique in modern RF systems. But perfection is not so easily achieved in real life, and quadrature circuitry is no exception. This may seem like an issue with quadrature modulation in general; what is the connection to IF receivers? If an IF receiver must include high-frequency circuitry for performing the frequency translation from RF to IF, why not simply use the baseband frequency instead of an intermediate frequency?
A receiver that shifts the signal down to the baseband instead of the IF is referred to as a direct-conversion or homodyne, or zero-IF architecture. Are the traditional benefits of an intermediate frequency still—i.
With all known filtering techniques the filter's bandwidth increases proportionately with the frequency. So a narrower bandwidth and more selectivity can be achieved by converting the signal to a lower IF and performing the filtering at that frequency. FM and television broadcasting with their narrow channel widths, as well as more modern telecommunications services such as cell phones and cable television , would be impossible without using frequency conversion.
In special purpose receivers other frequencies can be used. A dual-conversion receiver may have two intermediate frequencies, a higher one to improve image rejection and a second, lower one, for desired selectivity.
A first intermediate frequency may even be higher than the input signal, so that all undesired responses can be easily filtered out by a fixed-tuned RF stage. In a digital receiver, the analog to digital converter ADC operates at low sampling rates, so input RF must be mixed down to IF to be processed.
Intermediate frequency tends to be lower frequency range compared to the transmitted RF frequency. However, the choices for the IF are most dependent on the available components such as mixer, filters, amplifiers and others that can operate at lower frequency. There are other factors involved in deciding the IF frequency, because lower IF is susceptible to noise and higher IF can cause clock jitters. Modern satellite television receivers use several intermediate frequencies.
The downlink signal is received by a satellite dish. One of the two blocks is selected by a control signal from the set top box inside, which switches on one of the local oscillators. This IF is carried into the building to the television receiver on a coaxial cable. Further processing selects the channel desired, demodulates it and sends the signal to the television.
An intermediate frequency was first used in the superheterodyne radio receiver, invented by American scientist Major Edwin Armstrong in , during World War I. Armstrong's solution was to set up an oscillator tube that would create a frequency near the incoming signal, and mix it with the incoming signal in a 'mixer' tube, creating a 'heterodyne' or signal at the lower difference frequency, where it could be amplified easily.
After the war, in , Armstrong sold the patent for the superheterodyne to Westinghouse , who subsequently sold it to RCA. The increased complexity of the superheterodyne circuit compared to earlier regenerative or tuned radio frequency receiver designs slowed its use, but the advantages of the intermediate frequency for selectivity and static rejection eventually won out; by , most radios sold were 'superhets'. During the development of radar in World War II , the superheterodyne principle was essential for downconversion of the very high radar frequencies to intermediate frequencies.
Since then, the superheterodyne circuit, with its intermediate frequency, has been used in virtually all radio receivers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Problems, Methods and Equipment.
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Intermediate frequency tends to be lower frequency range compared to the transmitted RF frequency. However, the choices for the IF are most dependent on the available components such as mixer, filters, amplifiers and others that can operate at lower frequency.
Intermediate frequency filters to write in essay about a streetcar named desire custom business paper professional college admission writers. However, because of frequency intermediate filters his ability.
Intermediate frequency filtering is very efficient in radio receiver circuits. Surplus Sales of Nebraska has an extensive line up of Collins mechanical and crystal filters as well as ceramic filters. An example of an analogue electronic band-pass filter is an RLC circuit (a resistor–inductor–capacitor circuit).OUR AIM: DESIGNING INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY FILTER AT KHz APPROACH: TO DESIGN A BANDPASS FILTER WITH RESONANT FREQUENCY AT KHz A band-pass filter is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that .
Specifications of intermediate frequency (IF) filters include in. to in. warp size, in. to in. fill dia., 5 x 5 to 21 x 20 strands/sq. in., 23 to holes/sq. in., to opening size/sq. in. & percent to 59 percent open area. Dec 25, · An intermediate frequency band-pass filter for providing a pass band, comprising a frame forming a hollow surrounded region, a shield plate .