Several researchers have described variations of the for the steps used in phenomenology. The following diagram provides an example of a more detailed description of the steps in a phenomenology study. Data analysis will be the focus of the next module in this series.
Phenomenological Research Methods — Contains a detailed descriptive of different types of phenomenological research methods. This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. List and describe the steps involved in a phenomenology study. Describe the basic principles applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection.
Discuss ways in which phenomenological data can be collected. Summarize tips for conducting an effective interview. Following is a list of principles and qualities applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection: Phenomenology searches for the meaning or essence of an experience rather than measurements or explanations.
Researcher should begin with the practice of Epoche. He or she will describe their own experiences or ideas related to phenomenon to increase their own awareness of their underlying feelings. Phenomenology is different in that the researcher is often participatory and the other participants are co-researchers in many cases. This type of research focuses on the wholeness of the experience, rather than its individual parts.
Phenomenology differs from other research in that it does not test a hypothesis, nor is there an expectation that the results predictive or reproducible. Additional studies into the same phenomenon often reveal new and additional meanings.
The study can be applied to a single case or deliberately selected samples. A phenomenological research study typically follows the four steps listed below: Bracketing — The process of identifying, and keeping in check, any preconceived beliefs, opinions or notions about the phenomenon being researched.
Bracketing is important to phenomenological reduction, which is the process of isolating the phenomenon and separating it from what is already known about it. Intuition — This requires that the researcher become totally immersed in the study and the phenomenon and that the researcher remains open to the meaning of the phenomenon as described by those that experienced it. The process of intuition results in an understanding of the phenomenon and may require the researcher to vary the data collection methods or questions until that level of understanding emerges.
The sample may be biased to the extent that people without phones are part of the population about whom the researcher wants to draw inferences.
This method saves time involved in processing the data, as well as saving the interviewer from carrying around hundreds of questionnaires. However, this type of data collection method can be expensive to set up and requires that interviewers have computer and typing skills.
Paper-pencil-questionnaires can be sent to a large number of people and saves the researcher time and money. People are more truthful while responding to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that their responses are anonymous. But they also have drawbacks. Majority of the people who receive questionnaires don't return them and those who do might not be representative of the originally selected sample.
A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research. This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed. Some disadvantages of this method include the exclusion of people who do not have a computer or are unable to access a computer.
Also the validity of such surveys are in question as people might be in a hurry to complete it and so might not give accurate responses. Questionnaires often make use of Checklist and rating scales. These devices help simplify and quantify people's behaviors and attitudes. A checklist is a list of behaviors,characteristics,or other entities that te researcher is looking for. Either the researcher or survey participant simply checks whether each item on the list is observed, present or true or vice versa.
A rating scale is more useful when a behavior needs to be evaluated on a continuum. They are also known as Likert scales.
Furthermore qualitative methods can beused to improve the quality of survey-based quantitative evaluations by helping generate evaluation hypothesis; strengthening the design of survey questionnaires and expanding or clarifying quantitative evaluation findings. These methods are characterized by the following attributes:. Regardless of the kinds of data involved,data collection in a qualitative study takes a great deal of time.
The researcher needs to record any potentially useful data thououghly,accurately, and systematically,using field notes,sketches,audiotapes,photographs and other suitable means. The data collection methods must observe the ethical principles of research. The qualitative methods most commonly used in evaluation can be classified in three broad categories: Different ways of collecting evaluation data are useful for different purposes, and each has advantages and disadvantages.
Various factors will influence your choice of a data collection method: The purpose of this page is to describe important data collection methods used in Research..
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data.
Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. Data collection methods for impact evaluation vary along a continuum.
DATA COLLECTION Research methodology A brief and succinct account on what the techniques for collecting data are, how to apply them, where to Magister “Civilisation: find data of any type, and the way to keep records for language and Cultural an optimal management of cost, time and effort. Studies. Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 1. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 2. What is data collection? The process by which the researcher collects the information needed to answer the research .
It is also worth remembering at this stage that all methods of data collection can supply quantitative data (numbers and statistics) or qualitative data (usually words or text). You have, however, selected from the two main traditions of approaching a research topic – quantitative and qualitative. Overview Of Different Data Collection Techniques Responses can be analyzed with quantitative methods by assigning numerical values to Likert-type scales; Consists of examining existing data in the form of databases, meeting minutes, reports, attendance logs, financial records, newsletters, etc.